In the last decade, a growing scientific interest has underlined the potentially huge role of adult stem cells in the maintenance and repairing of human and animal life- sustaining tissues. Adult stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells only insofar as they are produced after birth, but are very similar to embryonic stem cells in their ability to differentiate into new and specialized cells which replace dying or damaged cells, thus contributing to the regeneration of damaged bodily tissues. Another potential difference rests on their totipotent, multipotent or unipotent nature: whereas embryonic stem cells are totipotent, that is they are able to differentiate in any cell of the body, adult stem cells (ASC) can be multipotent but can also be unipotent, that is are able to self-renew only into one type of cells. However this is not necessarily a limitation, especially in consideration that ASC are characterized as specific, compartmentalized cells, some of which are clearly pluripotent, while others seems to have a more limited function.

So far, the list includes: hematopoietic, neural, mesenchymal, endothelial, mammary, olfactory, intestinal and testicular stem cells. However, among the various types of ASC, only some seems to have this more systemic ability for the self-renewal of the organism:

  • hematopoietic stem cells, which are found in the bone marrow of adults, especially in the pelvis, femur and sternum, and give rise to all the blood cell types, from red blood cells (erythrocytes) to immune cells (NK cells, T and B cells, macrophages);
  • neural stem cells, whose existence in the adult human brain has been established following the acknowledgment of neurogenesis, that is the ability of the animal and human brain to generate new neurons, as it happens for instance after a brain ischemia; they're most present in the embryos but persist also in the grain of adults, continuing to generate neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Unfortunately, neural stem cells proliferation declines with aging, unless neuronal aging is slowed down by specific active substances.
  • mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood, and teeth, and are possibly the most pluripotent, given that they can differentiate into fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adypocytes, neuroectodermal cells, and hepatocytes, while also modulating immune response. MSCcan convert into endothelial stem cells (ESC), and viceversa, in a process that is called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

From all the latest research, thus, there emerges a new picture of a system of self- maintenance and self-renewal that is paramount to keep the human and animal organism healthy and young, and the secret is to find natural substances, such as AFA microalgae, that are able to strongly support and maintain the activity and metabolism of those most fundamental stem cells.

AFA stands for Aphanizomenon flos aquae, the Invisible flower of the water. However, there are about 60 different types of AFA, but the one that is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement is the strain that lives and proliferates in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA, namely Aphanizomenon flos aquae Ralfs ex Born. & Flah. Var. flos aquae. Klamath AFA is the daughter of Klamath Lake, and what it so unique its the particular characteristics of the lake itself. Upper Klamath Lake is nested in an area of volcanic mountains, and is both high up at 1300 meters of altitude, and edging a desert area, with the consequence of having both 300 days of sunshine per year, with great opportunities for photosynthesis, and very cold winters that force AFA algae to produce essential fatty acids such as Omega 3. The Lake itself is rather large (approx. 52 x 12 km), but also rather shallow, again favoring microalgal photosynthesis, but with a volcanic mineral deposit of up to 10 meters, explaining the unique mineral richness if Klamath AFA.

In spite of the badmouthing of the lake by interested critics, the lake is as pristine as a lake can be today. It is one the most important site for permanent and migrating birds in Western USA, and in the summer you can find tens of thousands of birds as the only inhabitants of the lake (of course besides the vast stock of fish they feed upon), ranging from the famous Dancing Grebes to Pelicans to Bald Eagles, the symbol of the United States which can survive only in unpolluted areas.

Thanks to this extraordinary environment, Klamath AFA, which is harvested wild, is possibly the richest food on earth, and in absolute terms beats pretty much any other food or superfood in terms of nutritional bounty. Its super-rich nutritional profile includes all the 14 vitamins, with high concentrations of vitamin A (in the form of pro-vitamin A carotenes); B vitamins, including a high quantity of vitamin B12 and folates (the naturalform of folic acid or vitamin B9), extremely important to prevent the accumulation of the toxic amino acid homocysteine; vitamin K, important for bone and teeth health, and for proper blood coagulation; and small but useful quantities of vitamin C and E. Klamath AFA has also the widest content of more than 70 minerals and trace minerals, including significant quantities of iron, natural fluorine, and vanadium, essential for insulin metabolism and the metabolic syndrome. Klamath AFA is also a good source of Omega 3 fatty acids, and has the widest spectrum of carotenoids, including important xantophylls such as lutein, zaxanthin, astaxanthin and licopene. We recently discovered also that AFA has possibly the highest content of polyphenols.

And speaking of nutraceutical molecules, Klamath AFA has a such an important array of such molecules, that their discovery over time explained many of the apparently miraculous health effects that people reported experiencing. It is from the research developed mainly by my own (Dr. Scoglio's) research group that specific AFA extracts were invented that concentrated some of the most relevant AFA molecules : phenylethylamine (PEA) and supporting MAO-B enzymes inhibiting molecules, to create Klamin® with its wide neuromodulating and immune-modulating properties ; AFA-phycocyanins, concentrated in the Aphamax® extract, with their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. These molecules, though, work together also to stimulate stem cells metabolism, an action that complements and completes the many essential properties we mentioned above, making the complex of the two extracts possibly the most perfect supplement to enhance health, wellness and youthfulness.

Spirulina is the other cyanobacterial microalgae consumed as a nutritional supplement. Both AFA and Spirulina are "blue-green algae", that is they belong to the class of primordial cyanobacteria, the first form of life on the planet, also called procaryotes, which differ from all other forms of subsequent life insofar as they do not have a cellulose-based membrane, and so are easily digested (as opposed for instance to Chlorella, which is a eukaryotic unicellular microalgae, with a tough membrane that needs to be mechanically destroyed to make it digestible for humans).

They also precede the distinction between vegetables and animals, and so, while they are blue-green and live in water, they have up to 70% of proteins. Both also have one of the highest concentration of chlorophyll of all green foods, and contain exclusively the specific cyanobacterial pigments phycocyanins, endowed with many and profound health properties.

However, besides their common traits, there are also very significant differences between AFA Klamath, Spirulina and Chlorella, as made clear by the following table:

KlamExtra® is a proprietary combination of the two patented AFA extracts Klamin® and AphaMax®, which concentrates the relevant molecules from AFA 5-7:1. Each extract has independent and unique properties, but together they perform a 360° action on both somatic and neuronal stem cells. Other AFA extracts, such as the original StemTech, were supposed to concentrate other molecules, even though they probably were secretly and illegally reproducing our patented Klamin® and AphaMax® extracts. However, today's available extracts are either fake, being presented as extracts but really having the same or less concentration that the whole algae; or they are so diluted with other substances such as Spirulina (like in the new StemEnhance Ultra), that their molecular concentration again is lower than the whole AFA. Only with KlamExtra® you get the true extracts, endowed with many health-enhancing properties, including they ability to work synergistically to promote both the release and the circulation of somatic and neuronal stem cells.

Both Klamin® and AphaMax® are water extracts from AFA, and each represent a specific fraction of the whole microalgae. The difference between the two is that while both are water mechanical extracts, the water extract is produced through different Ultrafiltration membranes: Klamin® concentrates for the most part the small molecular weight molecules, and only some of the higher molecular weight phycocyanins; AphaMax® concentrates the mid range of molecular weight, thus generating the highest concentration AFA-phycocyanins.
Each extract concentrates its relevant molecules approximately 5:1.
Klamin® concentrates phenylethylamine (PEA) from approx. 3 mg/gr to 18-20 mg/gr; and the mycosporine-like amino acids Porphyra and Shinorine from approx. 0.8 mg/gr to 2.7 mg/gr.
AphaMax® concentrates the unique AFA-phycocyanins from approx. 50 mg/gr in the whole AFA to approx. 250 mg/gr in the extract. Overall, each gram of the extract provides the same quantity of molecules of 5 to 7 grams of the whole AFA.
Even though each extract has its own action on stem cells, and together they perform a 360° action on both somatic and neuronal stem cells, each extract has further and very important specific properties, backed by significant scientific evidence:

Klamin®: PEA has very wide neuro-modulating and immune-modulating properties, and is also considered the "molecule of love", because our brain produces it mostly when we are in love, or happy or enthusiastic about something. We all know that when we are in love we are happy, healthy and thin (also because love, by stimulating dopamine, makes one feel satiated and not hungry at all). PEA may be the molecule responsible for all that, as PEA is known to be not only a general neuromodulator, but also a powerful immune-modulator, endowed even with activities at the digestive and gastro-intestinal levels. PEA by itself would be useless, as once ingested is rapidly destroyed by the enzymes monoaminooxidase-B (MAO-B): Klamin® solves this problem as it contains other molecules, such as AFA-phycocyanins and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), which act as powerful yet physiological MAO-B inhibitors. And Klamin® has proven its efficacy in different clinical studies on mood, depression, anxiety and stress, fatigue, ADHD, autism, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, MS; as well as on the increase of libido and as a powerful appetite suppressant, inhibiting especially the so called nervous hunger, the nervous munching between meals. You can find a summary of these studies in my Booklet on Klamin® and AphaMax® clinical studies.

AphaMax® : the specific phycocyanins of AFA, the AFA-phycocyanins concentrated in AphaMax®, have proven to be the most powerful antioxidant of all known molecules, up to 40 times more powerful than quercetine and catechines. They are also very powerful anti-inflammatory substances, comparable to the new COX-2 inhibiting drugs but without the side effects. Tested on mice that were injected with capsaicin in stomach and urinary bladder, with a huge increase in inflammation, when also given AphaMax® the inflammation was completely, 100% inhibited. We have also done a human study on psoriasis, and with only 3 tablets a day of a product based on AphaMax®, 8 out of 10 patients had their psoriasis solved within 3 months. Another area where we have done research is related to cancer proliferation, and we have found a very strong ability of AFA-phycocyanins to generate the apoptosis (self-death) of cancer cells, as well as the ability to inhibit the generation of cancer metastases. They are only preliminary data, but very promising. As phycocyanins are also able to stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts, the skin's own stem cells, and have also a very powerful fibrinolytic activity (the ability to dissolve the fibrin that keeps together both the cardiovascular plaque as well as cellulite tissues) AphaMax® is also at the core of the transdermal project and patent.

Both Klamin® and AphaMax® have also a powerful activity on stem cells, and studies have proven the ability of all the molecules concentrated in the two extracts to promote both the release and the circulation of both somatic and neural stem cells.

We have seen that stem cells are the repair and maintenance mechanism our body uses to keep us young and healthy. Hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells are generated for the most part in the bone marrow of different bones, while neural stem cells are generated from within the brain through mechanisms that are still not fully understood. In order for stem cells to be able to perform their repairing function, they first have to be released from the original site of production, and then have to migrate toward the bodily site in need of repair. The ways in which stems cells are released are various, and still not fully known. Hematopoietic stem cells, for instance, are kept in the bone marrow attached to cell receptors called Selectin (L-selectin, E-selectin), and molecules that act as Selectin ligands, by attaching to the Selectin receptor, prevent the attachment of the stem cells, which are thus released into the bloodstream. AFA algae has been shown to contain one such L-selectin ligand, which makes AFA able to stimulate the release of hematopoietic stem cells. But there are other mechanisms of release that are affected by AFA's molecular components. A major one is the degradation of stem cells niches (where stem cells are kept) by fibrinolysis (the dissolving of fibrin) and proteolysis (the dissolving of extra-cellular tissues by protease enzymes), something that AFA-phycocyanins do by stimulating both fibrinolysis and proteolysis directly, and by indirectly (via the stimulation of urokinase-like plasminogen) activating the matrix metallo-proteinases, which are the endogenous molecules mainly responsible for the proteolytic degradation of unnecessary tissues. This is also the mechanism by which phycocyanins stimulate the proliferation and release of fibroblasts, the stem cells of the skin; but it also applies to almost all other mesenchymal stem cells, making thus AFA-phycocyanins a very powerful general somatic stem cells releaser.
One more path to enhance the release of stem cells has been recently discovered, and is related to the circadian rhythms, insofar as they regulate the secretion of adrenaline into the bone marrow, adrenaline which through various mechanism enhance the proliferation of stem cells. Here, Klamax® plays another important role, as its PEA acts as an activator of the dopaminergic cascade, which leads to a higher production of adrenaline.
Finally PEA, and the Klamin® extract that concentrates it, have shown to play a very important role in the release and proliferation of neural stem cells, the brain and nervous system specific stem cells: Klamin® does indeed very significantly increases, in animals, the production of brain erythropoietin (EPO), which is the general precursor of neuroblasts (the activated version of neural stem cells), which in turn is the mother of all neuronal tissues and neurotransmitters. Klamax® thus promotes the release of stem cells, both somatic and neuronal, in almost all the various ways that have been identified as paths for their generation and release.
When we then move to the migration of stem cells, here too Klamax® helps significantly. Once in the blood, stem cells have to migrate towards the bodily site in need of repair. Originally, DLT patented an AFA compound they defined as a polysaccharide, to be concentrated through an ethanol extraction. But soon after, realizing that the actual mobilizing compound was a different one, published an article explaining that the mobilizing factor for immune cells (which are very similar to stem cells) was a set of "low molecular weight peptides", without though defining the actual nature of such compounds. However, low molecular weight peptides are indeed concentrated by my patented extract Klamin® through ultra-filtration, and since they could not reveal they were actually reproducing my patented extract, they kept talking about ethanol extract and polysaccharides. But the reality is Klamax®, concentrating both AFA-phycocyanins in the Aphamax® extract, and the “low molecular weight peptides” in Klamin®, has the ability of acting on all types of stem cells, both somatic and neural, stimulating both their release into the bloodstream and their migration from the bloodstream into organs and tissues.

Some benefits can be immediate, such as mental clarity and mood improvement. Other benefits can emerge over time. Better energy, better sleep and stress reduction may appear within the first few weeks. Same also with sex drive and reduction of nervous appetite. The effects on the immune system, either for winter illnesses or for allergies, can be seen within the first 2-3 months (in case of allergies, better double the dose). For situations involving neurodegenerative conditions, improvements can be seen sometimes surprisingly fast, but deeper result will require at least 3-6 months.

There is no known interactions with any pharmaceutical drugs. AphaMax® has proven to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy, but without reducing its activity. As to food, the only interaction can be better digestion, better assimilation, reduction of the glycemic intake. However, for best results it would be better to drink KlamExtra® on an empty stomach, but also up to 30 minutes before a meal.

Absolutely not. KlamExtra® is not an immune-stimulant, but an immune-modulator. It increases the activity of the immune system when it is low, but normalizes it if it is too active. Moreover, even when it stimulates the migration of immune cells, at the same time it lowers their inflammatory activity, thus rebalancing the effect on health. From this point of view, KlamExtra® is indicated for all autoimmune diseases and does not create problems for patients who have undergone a transplant (except for possible detoxifying effects).